Apple is making it even harder for people to break into iPhones and steal their contents. While that is good news for consumers, law enforcement agencies complain that Apple is giving free rein to terrorists and pedophiles by impeding government access and surveillance.
Cryptography is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it. The term is most often associated with scrambling plaintext (ordinary text, sometimes referred to as cleartext) into ciphertext (a process called encryption), then back again (known as decryption).
Implementing cyber security has software, hardware, and human components. Humans must implement policies such as using strong passwords and not divulging them, software must be kept up to date with patches that fix its vulnerabilities. Antivirus software and firewalls can help prevent unauthorized access to private data.
After its human resources, information is an organization's most important asset. As we have seen in previous chapters, security and risk management is data centric. All efforts to protect systems and networks attempt to achieve three outcomes: data availability, integrity, and confidentiality. And as we have also seen, no infrastructure security controls are 100% effective.
Cryptography, which translates as "secret writing," refers to the science of concealing the meaning of data so only specified parties understand a transmission's contents. Cryptography has existed for thousands of years; for most of history, however, the users of cryptography were associated with a government or organized group and were working to conceal secret messages from enemies.